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A search of the Viennese press for and yields no corroborative evidence to support Johann Strauss's authorship of the waltz, and one is thus forced to look elsewhere to substantiate this contention. The work, apparently comprising original themes by Vienna's Waltz King, proved unknown to present-day Strauss scholars and caused a great deal of interest worldwide Later, the Centennial Waltzes were analysed by Norman Godel in his study of Strauss's 'American' compositions for the British Strauss Society's journal Tritsch-Tratsch No.
Godel, who considered Centennial, Autograph and Engagement "definitely superior" to other 'original' American Strauss waltzes which have been found, notes that all three have in common the extent to which off-beat rhythms have been introduced into several themes, as well as the fact that, unusually, they only repeat their main theme 1A in their respective Codas.
If one assumes that Strauss' Centennial Waltzes did genuinely flow from Johann's pen, then there is a distinct possibility that the composition may have been given its first performance during the period of Philadelphia's Centennial International Exhibition. The press published full programme details of only a few of these concerts, but from these it is clear that Thomas played a number of unfamiliar items from the Viennese dance repertoire, including several by members of the Strauss family Perhaps Johann's Centennial Waltzes were amongst these.
A further question remains unanswered: why was only one of the waltzes which Johann purportedly created for America ever published in Vienna? See note accompanying Walzer-Bouquet Nr. Constantly pressured for new music by American publishers, it seems likely that he furnished some of them with rough sketches to be concocted into full length waltzes by their house arrangers.
Synonyms and antonyms of Seewalze in the German dictionary of synonyms
But what of works like Strauss' Centennial Waltzes, which the composer had more than adequate time to construct, but which nevertheless lack the spark of genius which permeates other waltzes written around this period, like Wiener Blut op. Did Strauss perhaps consider his compositions for the far-off New World mere trifles, unworthy of publication and performance in Vienna?
If that was indeed the case, it is unfortunate that he could not foresee a world shrunken by jet travel. Had he done so, he might have taken greater pains with his waltzes for America.
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The orchestral performing material which W. Cundy published for Strauss' Centennial Waltzes unusually lacks parts for oboe and bassoon. For this reason, the conductor and arranger Jerome D. Cohen created one oboe and two bassoon parts for inclusion in this Marco Polo recording. Such newspaper reports testify to the almost magical spell which Johann Strauss was able to weave over his audiences whenever he appeared on the conductor's podium at the World's Peace Jubilee and International Musical Festival at Boston during summer Of all the compositions which Vienna's Waltz King is purported to have created for his visit to America, Strauss' Enchantment Waltzes present the greatest problem for the Strauss researcher.
So markedly inferior in content is this work compared with Johann's other 'American' waltzes written at this time, that Strauss's authorship is rightly questioned. Moreover, the piece displays none of the hallmarks which distinguish the composer's genius at this highly inventive period of his life. The facts, as known, are as follows:. In the Unite States of America, copyright registration for musical compositions was not established until the late s.
Quite possibly, however, the waltz was published before this date: for example, Johann's Manhattan Waltzes o.
Nevertheless, if the waltz was published in or , one may fairly question why registration was so delayed. Despite substantial press coverage of the Boston festivities, no mention has yet been found regarding a performance of Strauss' Enchantment Waltzes. The work belongs to that group of 'American' waltzes comprising original themes, rather than being a pastiche fashioned from melodies in previously published waltzes. Perhaps significantly, in view of the doubts concerning its authorship, nowhere is the composer specifically named: while Johann Strauss is, by inference, the author of the piece, the cover and first page of the piano score merely quote the title Strauss' Enchantment Waltzes.
Highlighting the similarity between the endings of themes 2A and 3B, and between 1A, 1B, 2B, 4A and 5B, Godel states: "This repetition of almost the same ending in several successive themes tends to become monotonous to the point of irritation". After studying numerous examples of endings in other waltzes by Johann Strauss, Godel finds that the most frequently occurring of those in Strauss' Enchantment Waltzes "must be regarded as untypical of a Strauss waltz". Until such time as firm evidence is gathered which authenticates the provenance of Strauss' Enchantment Waltzes, a question mark must inevitably hang over the authorship of the work.
Strauss" - may hold the solution to the issue of this and other 'American' Strauss waltzes. This possibility is given greater credence by the fact that a volume of Viennese Strauss family compositions published in America during does indeed include, and erroneously attribute, a work the Orpheus Quadrille by Isaac Strauss.
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It should be added, however, that no waltz by the title of Enchantment or its various translations is listed under Isoac Strauss's compositions in the voluminous Universal-Handbuch der Musikliteratur, compiled by Franz Pazdirek and J. Gotthard Vienna, In the absence of any published orchestral parts for Strauss' Enchantment Waltzes, the American musicologist, composer and arranger, Jerome D.
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Cohen, has prepared the orchestral performing material for this Marco Polo recording from the published piano edition. Johann Strauss celebrated the 19th birthday of his stepdaughter Alice with a house ball at his elegant 'Palais' in Vienna's Igelgasse on 20 January Entitled " In addition to this privately printed edition for voice and piano, Strauss also prepared an arrangement for 24 musicians, although it remains uncertain whether this latter version was performed at the house ball.
What is certain, however, is that each orchestral part bore the inscription in translation : "For the birthday of my dear daughter Alice", a dedication which also appears on the inside of the 'ladies' gift'. The composer subsequently made a second orchestral arrangement of "Ein Gstanzl vom Tanzl", extended to 54 bars and written for 29 musicians. Idyll by Johann Strauss". The beguiling simplicity of the piece appealed to audience and reviewers alike, with the critic for the Neue Freie Presse Above all, a charming piece of music by Johann Strauss, 'Auf der Alm', caused a sensation and had to be played three times.
A draught of fresh mountain air, combined with the elegance of polite society, wafts through this little idyll, which the maestro composed for a specific occasion in his own home. In view of such popularity, it was hardly surprising that Auf der Alm featured again on the programmes of Eduard's Sunday concerts in the Musikverein on 18 February and 4 March.
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The continuing success of this unusual composition led Eduard to produce an extended version, which he introduced during his final concert of the season at the Musikverein on Sunday 18 March , prior to his departure on a concert tour to St Petersburg. On this occasion the programme read: "New. It is not known what became of Eduard's arrangement: it is not listed in the catalogue of the Strauss Orchestra's musical archive which Eduard compiled after his retirement in March This present recording is based on the version for 29 instruments preserved in the collection of the Wiener Stadt- und Landesbibliothek under the title Auf der Alm.
Strauss' Engagement Waltzes belongs to that group of compositions which Johann Strauss is said to have composed, or arranged, for his visit to the United States of America in on the occasion of the World's Peace Jubilee and International Musical Festival organised at the 'Coliseum' in Boston by the Irish-born Patrick Sarsfield Gilmore On 6 December , Gilmore returned from his European travels to engage foreign bands and soloists for the planned Jubilee. That same night he made a statement to his Committee in Boston, later reported by the Boston Daily Advertiser.
In part this read: "There is a possibility - and to this possibility Americans will cling with their accustomed tenacity - that Strauss, whom Mr.
Gilmore saw in Vienna, may be able so to modify his existing arrangements that he can take part in the great Jubilee". This statement, dating from early December , marked the first time the name of Strauss was mentioned in connection with the Jubilee, and it refutes biographers' claims that Vienna's Waltz King settled upon a firm contract with Gilmore at their initial meeting.
When, at the last moment, Johann chose "to modify his existing arrangements" and accept the Boston engagement, he found himself in breach of a contract he had already signed to give a short season of concerts in St Petersburg that summer. A long and trying court action ensued, as a result of which Strauss was required to pay a high settlement to the plaintiffs, a Russian railway company.
Johann's engagement at Boston lasted from the opening concert 'American Day' on 17 June until the official close of the Jubilee 'People's Day' on 4 July. Two days later, on 6 July, he also participated at a benefit concert given in his honour at the 'Coliseum', immediately afterwards heading for the railway station with his wife for the trip to New York, where he had agreed to conduct three concerts. His appearance in America generated phenomenal public interest, and the newspapers devoted quantities of column inches to reporting his activities, both public and private.
It is therefore all the more remarkable that several of the published compositions bearing his name or, in some cases, just that of 'Strauss' , and apparently composed or arranged for the Boston visit, received no mention at all in the Boston or New York press.
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Had these works actually been performed during the Jubilee's musical events, it is inconceivable that they would have passed unreported. Based on this assumption, a number of possibilities arise: Strauss may have only composed these works at the very end of the Jubilee, or even despatched them to publishers soon after his return to Vienna. Alternatively, under constant pressure from publishers for new works, he may simply have given them rough thematic sketches for their house arrangers to fashion into complete sets of waltzes. A further possibility is that some of these published compositions have nothing to do with Johann Strauss at all, but are the work of avaricious publishers climbing on to the lucrative 'Strauss bandwagon'.
The piano score of Engagement was registered with the Office of the Librarian of Congress at Washington in , as was an edition for reduced i. Cohen therefore prepared an orchestration on the basis of the published piano score. Jerome Cohen observes of the orchestration: "There are significant differences between these parts and the piano score I used as the basis for my arrangement; for example, the very end of the Coda is considerably longer and has a greater build-up than in the piano version.
Even on the basis of a brief examination of these parts when I received them in December , I was convinced that the orchestration was not Strauss's. After having recorded the work, I am still convinced that it was not orchestrated by Strauss. It's a good orchestration, but too many things occur which are uncharacteristic. The viola pizzicato figure in 5A is very surprising. Strauss tended to use the cello for such figures, and it would be a series of rising arpeggios rather than up and down.
Perhaps the greatest reason for suspicion is that the scoring is very dense. Strauss's orchestration tended toward transparency". In the immediate wake of Johann Strauss's sole visit to the United States of America in summer , when he conducted on numerous occasions in Boston and New York, no less than seven publishers issued waltzes purportedly written by Vienna's Waltz King. Only two from the total of nine compositions published are known to have been performed by Strauss during his American trip - the Jubilee Waltz and the Manhattan Waltzes.
It is a matter for conjecture whether the remaining works published were written by Strauss in America, or completed by him after his return to Vienna and submitted by post. A third possibility is that some of the publications had nothing to do with Strauss himself, but were compiled by opportunistic publishers anxious to benefit from Johann's visit and the attendant clamour for new Strauss music. Farewell to America, unlike its companion piece Greeting to America Volume 46 of this CD series , is a pastiche waltz comprising melodies from previously published works by the Waltz King.
The thematic material used for Farewell to America is drawn from the following published Strauss waltzes:. The presence of a waltz theme by Josef Strauss Waltz 4B may possibly indicate that Farewell to America was compiled, not by Strauss himself, but by a house arranger for the publisher, Oliver Ditson. This possibility is given greater credence by the fact that many Strauss family compositions published outside Vienna merely credited authorship to "J.